Space

NASA plans to explorer the moons of Saturn with… a submarine?

Titan, one of Saturn’s 60 something moons, is covered with lakes and seas of liquid methane which means landing a spaceship on Titan would be quite difficult. But landing a spaceship *under* the methane seas of Titan… well, that’s an entirely new set of problems – and NASA intends to figure out how to do it. To explore Titan’s undersea world, NASA proposes development of a submersible autonomous vehicle – in other words, a remote-controlled submarine.  By 2040, they would like to send this submarine to Titan’s largest northern sea, Kraken Mare, which is comparable in size to the Great Lakes in the United States. The submarine will investigate Titan’s ocean to discover and determine its chemical composition, how its currents flow, and what the…
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Space

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft provides evidence of an ocean of water underneath Saturn’s moon

Scientists had long thought that Saturn’s moon Enceladus had an ocean of liquid water underneath its thick, icy surface (in 2004, NASA scientists saw water vapor and ice spewing from vents near the moon’s south pole). Today. NASA’s Cassini spacecraft revealed actual evidence that their theory was correct – an ocean lies hidden inside the moon. NASA scientists discovered the evidence by deducing gravity variations using the Doppler Effect (the same principle used in our earthly radar systems). NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory explained: “As the spacecraft flies by Enceladus, its velocity is perturbed by an amount that depends on variations in the gravity field that we’re trying to measure. We see the change in velocity as a change in radio frequency, received at our ground…
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