Science Tips

Volcanic ash and volcanic gas

Volcanic ash is made up of fragments less than 1/5 inch ( centimeter) in diameter. Most volcanic ash falls to the surface and becomes welded together as rock called volcanic tuff. Sometimes, volcanic ash combines with water in a stream and forms a boiling mudflow. Mudflows may reach speeds of 60 miles (97 kilometers) per hour and can be highly destructive. Volcanic bombs are large fragments. Most of them range from the size of a baseball to that of a basketball. The largest bombs may measure more than 4 feet ( meters) across and weigh up to 100 short tons (91 metric tons). Small volcanic bombs are generally called cinders. Gas pours out of volcanoes in large quantities during most eruptions. The gas is made…
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Science Tips

Charles’ Law

Simply put, Charles' Law states that: At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in Kelvin) increases or decreases. Although the formulas and final concept of Charles' Law were developed by Joseph Gay-Lussac in 1802, Jacques Charles came up with most of the ideas first and hence, the name of the Law. Jacques Charles was an avid balloonist – flying in hot air balloons was pretty hot stuff back then. In an effort to improve the performance of the hot air balloons, Charles studied the relationship between the air in the balloon in its normal state and the air in the balloon when heated. Detailed measurements were taken and recorded.…
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Pressure

Sucking an egg into a bottle – heat and pressure experiment

Sucking an egg into a bottle Here's an interesting experiment that we promise you'll be talking about at school the next day. Find a bottle with a long, narrow neck and set it on the table.  The opening should be just small enough to keep the egg from falling inside. Boil and peel a egg. Have Mom or Dad drop 3 lit matches into the bottle (if Dad does the 'dropping' then make sure the fire extinguisher is handy). Quickly place the egg over the mouth of the bottle. What happens? The lit matches heat the air inside the bottle. When air is heated it expands (and takes up more room). As the heated air expands, some of it escapes out the bottle. When the matches…
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